A tendon rupture often occurs during sports. But even if over-excited tendons are suddenly mechanically overloaded, a tendon rupture can occur. In the case of pre-stressed tendons, it can even happen that the tendon tears with everyday stress, while healthy tendons generally only tear when they are subjected to extreme stress or external force acts on them.
What is a tendon rupture?
The task of the tendons is to transmit the force of the muscles to the skeleton. Tendons are made up of strong collagen fiber bundles. Since they do not have their own blood vessels, they feed on the tissue fluid, which, however, only slowly enters the tendons. Movement is necessary for optimal care, as this allows the tensile strength of the various tendons to be trained. See ablogtophone for EHH which stands for Esophageal Hiatal Hernia.
A tendon rupture is a tear or rupture of a tendon due to sudden overload. A sudden contraction of the associated muscle can also lead to a tendon rupture.
There is often already degenerative damage to the corresponding tendon. The most common tendon rupture is the Achilles tendon rupture. But other tendons can also be affected.
Quadriceps tendon ruptures, ruptures of the biceps tendons or patellar tendon ruptures are just as common. The rotator cuffs of the shoulders are also commonly affected.
From the age of 30, degenerative changes occur in the tendon tissue, which means that from this point onwards the tendon tissue loses its elasticity due to age. Just like ligaments, tendons can partially or completely tear. The attachment point of a tendon on the bone can also be torn out (apophysis). Likewise, the bone can be broken in the event of a tendon tear (avulsion fracture).
Damage to the tendons occurs particularly frequently in areas that only have a limited blood supply, for example near the heel at the Achilles tendon or near the upper arm bone at the supraspinatus tendon.
Corresponding accumulations of tendon injuries can be identified in different sports, for example the Achilles tendon in sports such as running, skiing or tennis or the extensor tendons of the individual finger phalanxes in volleyball or basketball.
Course of the disease
After an injury to the tendon, the affected area will swell and discolor as bleeding occurs in the tissue. The rupture of the tendon is usually recognized on the basis of the physical changes, the pain felt by the person concerned, and functional tests by the doctor and [[X-ray]6 images.
The movement of the affected muscles is severely limited after a tendon tear. When a tendon tears, the pain is also very great. However, it is still possible to move the muscles, albeit with severe pain. If therapy is started immediately and carried out professionally, the prognosis that complete regeneration will occur is positive.
Symptoms, Ailments & Signs
A tendon rupture is usually caused by a strong external load or force. This leads to typical and very painful symptoms, which cause a severe impairment in the everyday life of the person concerned. Immediately after a tendon rupture, there is a stabbing pain.
The movement sequence is significantly disturbed, so that walking or running is no longer possible. Every movement causes severe pain, so treatment by an appropriate doctor is essential. Another and at the same time common sign is a strong swelling that occurs in the respective region of the tear. Bruises can also indicate an existing tendon tear.
Anyone who leaves such a clinical picture without any treatment is taking a great risk. The symptoms just mentioned increase significantly if they are not treated, so that there may even be permanent consequential damage. For this reason, a tendon rupture is a serious injury that is usually accompanied by fairly typical and distinct symptoms.
For a targeted diagnosis, however, a specialist should be consulted so that targeted treatment can be initiated. With appropriate treatment, the corresponding symptoms should subside promptly and quickly, so that a smooth recovery can be made possible.
As a result of a tendon rupture, there are initially restricted movements. If the disease persists, this can lead to malpositions or muscle atrophy in the affected region. If the swelling becomes inflamed, an abscess can form which, if left untreated, can develop into a serious infection.
A tendon rupture can reduce the performance of the muscle in the long term. Functional disorders and signs of paralysis are possible years after the injury, although this is extremely rare. Chronic pain, which requires lengthy therapy, is more common as a result of a tendon rupture. Muscle tightening can also occur.
A severe tendon tear can also have psychological consequences – for example excessive avoidance behavior. Bleeding, infection, thrombosis or tearing of the suture rarely occur during the operation. If nerves are injured, numbness or paralysis can also occur. Wound healing disorders and excessive scarring are also rare complications of tendon surgery.
Prescribed drugs are more likely to cause complications. Various side effects can occur after taking painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs. Common complaints: Gastrointestinal problems, headaches and skin irritations. Long-term medication can cause kidney and liver damage.
When should you go to the doctor?
A tendon tear should always be treated by a doctor. This disease cannot heal on its own, although the symptoms usually continue to worsen without treatment and the quality of life of the affected person is significantly reduced. In the case of a tendon rupture, early diagnosis and treatment is of great importance. A doctor should be consulted if the person affected suffers from very severe pain in the respective tendon.
This pain usually occurs with any movement, although the pain can also occur in the form of pain at rest. It is not uncommon for them to spread to neighboring regions, where they also cause severe symptoms. Bruises or severe swelling of the affected tendon also indicate a tendon tear and should be examined by a doctor if they do not go away on their own.
In the event of a tendon rupture, a general practitioner or an orthopaedist can be consulted in the first place. In emergencies or in the event of severe injuries and severe pain, a hospital can be visited directly or an ambulance can be called.
Treatment & Therapy
A medical examination must be carried out immediately if a tendon rupture is suspected. Reducing the pain and swelling is particularly important at first. Good cooling and high storage are to be initiated as first measures. It is also important to immobilize the relevant area.
If the tendon ends are close enough to each other so that optimal fusion is possible, conservative therapy is usually carried out. If this is not the case, surgery is preferred. Even if the therapy is to be carried out as quickly as possible, for example in the case of competitive athletes, an operation is often necessary. During surgical procedures, the ends of the tendons are sewn together. Sometimes the suture is reinforced with the skin of adjacent muscles. The extensor and flexor tendons of the hands will be operated on within the next 24 hours.
The corresponding point is then fixed with a special splint. In most cases, injuries to the Achilles tendon also require surgery. To relieve this after the procedure, special shoes are worn for several weeks. The next few months are for rest and slow training. In the case of tendon tears, immobilization with a support bandage or plaster of paris is sufficient in most cases.
In order to prevent a tendon rupture, appropriate warm-up exercises should be carried out before any sporting activity. It is also recommended to put on elastic bandages in particularly stressed areas for prevention.
If the tendon tear is treated surgically, special aftercare is required. The patient has to stay in the hospital for a few days after the operation. Physiotherapy has already started there.
If the tendon is torn near the knee joint, a functional orthosis is fitted in the clinic. The diffraction is initially limited to 30 degrees. At intervals of two weeks, they are released by a further 30 degrees. After discharge from the hospital, the physiotherapy treatment is continued on an outpatient basis.
Regular check-ups are also carried out by a specialist in orthopedics and trauma surgery. After an initial partial load, the leg can be fully loaded again after a few weeks. If the Achilles tendon has ruptured, the affected leg is immobilized in a stabilizing boot after both surgical and conservative therapy.
There is an equinus position of 20 degrees to avoid unnecessary stress on the seam. The patient is already able to put full weight on his leg again. In addition, early functional treatments can be carried out in which the muscles can be trained and the tendon can be increasingly stretched again.
You can do that yourself
A tendon rupture is a sudden event which, in contrast to a muscle fiber rupture, can hardly be prevented by warming up before exercising. Self-help in everyday life therefore means, above all, optimally structuring regeneration in the event of a tendon rupture and avoiding a recurrence, i.e. another rupture.
The measures for regeneration are rest for the period determined by the doctor and carrying out learned physiotherapy exercises at home. It also depends on the region of the rift what self-help can look like in concrete terms. If the biceps tendon is torn, working overhead is not possible for a while or can be avoided, so that the household or everyday work may have to be restructured accordingly. A rupture of the Achilles tendon means that the muscles in the calf must not be overstrained, as this exerts direct pull on the tendon. High shoes can also relieve the Achilles tendon in this context. The attending physician or physiotherapist will also give precise instructions in this context.
Those who tend to tear tendons can do fascia training. This is possible with special roles. Yin Yoga is a form of yoga that also focuses on stretching the fascia and can therefore have a positive influence on the stability of the tendons in the body. Hot baths can also relax the tissue and make it less susceptible to injury.