PHYSICAL, HUMAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
Located on the eastern slopes of the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines, between Emilia-Romagna to the N and the Marche to the S, the predominantly hilly territory of the small Republic of San Marino is dominated by the limestone-arenaceous cliff of Mount Titano (738 m), from which some streams originate, including the San Marino, a tributary of the Marecchia river, the Ausa and the Marano, which flow directly into the Adriatic Sea. The climate is rather temperate, with mild winters (average January 3 ºC) and quite hot summers (average July 24 ºC). Precipitation amounts to 900 mm per year, with maximums in autumn and winter, while summer is considerably dry.
According to iamhigher, the population, who at the end of the century. XIX was ca. 9000 residents, has more than tripled over time, recording an average density of 507 residents / km², very high considering the modest size of the territory. The capital, San Marino, is a picturesque medieval town, rich in important monuments and from which you can admire a vast panorama both on the Adriatic coast and on the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines. The country’s economy has long been based on agriculture, on breeding and processing of the stone extracted from the quarries of Mount Titano. Since the last postwar period, the growth of the tourist movement on the Romagna Riviera and the industrial and commercial development of the neighboring areas have given rise to a profound evolution. The country’s traditional resource is agriculture, mainly aimed at the cultivation of cereals (wheat, wheat, barley, maize), vegetables and fruit. The viticulture sector is important, at the service of an oenological industry that boasts wines of excellent quality, including Biancale, Moscato, Ribolla and Brugneto. Cattle, pig and sheep breeding are also practiced.
The manufacturing sector is present with small and medium-sized artisanal and industrial enterprises in the food (sweets, preserves, spirits), ceramic (tiles), mechanical, construction, textile, chemical (paints), paper, clothing and furniture tanning. In the handicraft stand out the working of ceramic art, the goldsmithing and the working of the iron (armor). The main sector of the San Marino economy is tourism (also facilitated by the proximity to the Romagna Riviera), which contributes about one third to the gross domestic product; the related commercial, service and transport sectors are also highly developed. Alongside the activities generically aimed at the tourist flow, an intense international congress activity has begun, with the availability of modern structures and prestigious venues. The tertiary sector and above all banking and financial services are also relevant, by virtue of a series of tax breaks that have attracted considerable foreign investment. An important economic resource is constituted by philatelic and numismatic collecting, while a certain role is also played by emigrant remittances (mostly in Italy, but also in France and the United States). The activity of relations and cooperation with other States and international organizations is considerable. Joined the United Nations since 1992, San Marino is also a member of the Council of Europe (since 1988) and of the OSCE (since 1989), while with the European Union it has signed a cooperation and customs union agreement. Italy remains a privileged partner, to which San Marino is linked by a series of commercial agreements: as compensation for the renunciation of imposing customs tariffs, it receives a large sum of money from the Italian state. The current currency, before the introduction of the euro in 2002, was the San Marino lira, equal in value to that of the Italian lira. San Marino does not have railways and airports but has a road network consisting of 220 km of asphalted roads.
The vegetation is of the Mediterranean typeand includes, in the lower-lying areas, wooded areas of maple and pine trees, while at higher altitudes there are many rock species including Turkey oaks, chestnut trees, holm oaks and firs. The fauna is mainly represented by foxes, hares, badgers and weasels. Although devoid of heavy industry, San Marino, a crowded tourist destination, has to deal with air pollution caused by excessive urbanization and the considerable accumulation of exhaust gases from the numerous cars passing through the country. The government, interested in promoting awareness raising on sustainable development and the intelligent consumption of energy resources, has ratified international agreements on air pollution, biodiversity, climate protection and the abolition of nuclear tests. All ‘ inside the small town some natural areas have been established, including the Montecchio Park (Murata locality), which houses a sports center and a natural area reserved for the protection of animals such as fallow deer, peacocks, ducks and other species of birds. The activity of the San Marino Naturalistic Center, based in the historic center of Borgo Maggiore, in the area of promotion, knowledge and enhancement of the natural and landscape heritage of San Marino should also be emphasized.