India Law and Education


The dominant language in the legal system is English. In every state there is a high court with universal jurisdiction, at the same time supervisory authority over the lower ordinary courts and administrative courts. The Supreme Court of Appeal is the Union’s Supreme Court. Its 30 judges as well as the Chief Justice are appointed by the President of the Union. Constitutional jurisdiction (review of norms and individual fundamental rights complaints) is expressly reserved for these upper courts. The basic rights part of the constitution contains the traditional individual rights, cultural and religious minority guarantees and the prohibition of untouchability and discrimination. In addition to the enforceable fundamental rights, the constitution contains Directive Principles of State Policy, which are not enforceable, but are often cited by the Supreme Court in the grounds of its judgment. The Supreme Court also has lawsuits on behalf of those affected who are unable to go to court themselves to admit “in the public interest” (public interest litigation). The guarantees of freedom are relativized by the admission of preventive detention laws. In India there is still the death penalty ; but it is seldom enforced. On March 20, 2020, four men were hanged for gang rape resulting in death.

According to Article 372 of the Constitution, British colonial and common law will continue to apply in civil law , although Indian law will increasingly replace them. Family and inheritance law differ according to religious affiliation. For Hindus religious law (Shastra) applies, for Muslims the Sharia (Islamic law) according to the Hanefite rite (Hanefites). Since the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955, divorce and monogamy apply to all castes ; according to the law, women have had roughly equal rights in inheritance, maintenance and adoption rights since 1956. Subordinate instances are the district courts (Courts of Session), the courts of justice (Courts of Magistrates) and, at the lowest level, the village Panchayat courts.


According to topschoolsintheusa, the basic guidelines of education policy are formulated jointly by the central government and the state governments. The organization of the school system is the responsibility of the federal states, for which the constitution stipulates a general eight-year compulsory education from the age of six (now increased to ten years in most states). Overall, the Indian school system is characterized by strong disparities according to state, region (city / country), gender and social origin. The main reasons for the often poor quality of state schools (primary and secondary schools) are inadequate teacher training and poor financial, human and material resources in schools.

The elementary sector of the Indian education system is only slightly expanded. In some cases high contributions were levied. Primary education is divided into two parts: the five-year lower primary school is followed by the three-year middle school. The regional language, Hindi and English should actually be taught in schools in India (“three-language formula”), but Hindi is given little or no place in the curriculum in the south and east of the country. In private schools, instruction is mostly in English. Secondary education lasts 2 (Secondary School) or 4 years (Higher Secondary School) and is completed with nationally recognized exams. India has a comparatively well-developed vocational education system. It comprises publicly and privately financed educational institutions, practical apprenticeship training with accompanying courses in training centers, company qualifications and polytechnics. In higher education there are 864 universities, including 44 central universities (under central government) and 345 state universities, and specialized colleges. There are also a number of colleges and other universities; the number of students is (2018) 35.7 million and specialized universities. There are also a number of colleges and other universities; the number of students is (2018) 35.7 million and specialized universities. There are also a number of colleges and other universities; the number of students is (2018) 35.7 million


The media landscape is very diverse and reflects a wide range of opinions, but the economic concentration is high. In conflict regions and in rural areas, free reporting is often only possible to a limited extent. Press: The number of periodicals increased with increasing readability from 17,100 (1979) to 118,000 (2018). Of these, around 17,600 are daily newspapers. About a third is published in Hindi and a sixth in English. The most widely read daily newspapers, often with numerous regional editions, are “Dainik Bhaskar” (Bhopal, Hindi), “Dainik Jagran” (Kanpur, Hindi), “Times of India” (New Delhi, English), “Malayala Manorama” (Kerala, Malayalam), “The Hindu” (Chennai, English), “Hindustan Times” (New Delhi, English), “Anandabazar Patrika” (Kolkata, Bengali) and “Eenadu” (Hyderabad, Telugu). – News agencies: Press Trust of India (PTI), United News of India (UNI), Asian News International (ANI), Indo-Asian News Service (IANS). – broadcasting: The public service “All India Radio” (AIR) is financed from the state budget and through advertising. It distributes national, regional and local programs in a variety of national languages ​​and dialects. There are also around 250 private radio stations. 75% of the around 800 television channels are received via satellite or cable. The state television company “Doordarshan” (DD) operates 21 channels, including two terrestrial and eleven regional satellite channels, a sports channel and two parliamentary channels. Large commercial broadcasting families are “Star India” (21st Century Fox), “TV 18” (Network 18), “NDTV” and “Zee TV”. Multiple news channels, including “Aaj Tak” operates the TV Today Network.

India Law and Education