The latter is, together with Pisa and Genoa, a city of maritime armament and of all the arts connected with armament. In this regard, it should be remembered that the mining and metallurgical industries have gained a lot of vigor. All of this, translated into social and political values, it means rising “people”, that is bourgeoisie in its various layers and craftsmanship. And its tendency to identify itself in the municipality is visible, to give itself its own organization in the municipality and its own statute and head, with an evident military character, to then absorb the municipality, to identify with it. In short, the start of a straightforward bourgeois regime. All this is visible already in the third and fourth decade of the 13th century. In Milan, even earlier. all this, already in the third and fourth decade of the 13th century. In Milan, even earlier. all this, already in the third and fourth decade of the 13th century. In Milan, even earlier.
But this age of multiple social formations and heated parties that also create party leaders; bourgeoisie and numerous craftsmen who want to make their way, and need someone to guide them in the field and also generate leaders; of renewed imperial and royal intervention in Italian affairs, with an effort, as never seen before, to establish or restore a political order to be opposed to the curia and the cities; this age also sees the emergence or re-emergence, but under a slightly changed guise, the great lord rich in lands, castles, militarily strong, able to place men and command. Not really everywhere. In Tuscany, for example, feudalism is now deprived or lives only on the edge of the region, in contact with small towns: in any case, it is a world quite distinct and detached from that of the cities, remove the Maremma counts of Donoratico and Gherardesca. But yes in the Po Valley, between the western and eastern Alps. This is the country of the great brands, from that of Ivrea to that of Friuli; the country of the Arduinici, the Aleramici, the Obertenghi, immigrants here from Tuscany etc .; the country also of the Savoy that from the sec. XI have begun to weave their story of mountaineers who go down to the plain and, a little, become urban. This aristocracy is still well in the saddle; it gained independence from the empire, without succumbing to the cities; he is transforming the relations with the vassals, establishing the birthright to preserve the patrimonial unity, subordinating the various members to a head, as the Monferrat and the Savoy families do. Attracted by cities, they seek to act on them, to acquire credit and strength and rights. According to THEFREEGEOGRAPHY, the Savoy, I entered Piedmont with Oddone, husband of Adelaide, Marquise of Turin and Ivrea; and then, due to the rise of the communes, reduced almost only to transalpine possessions; the Savoys worked with Umberto II and Amedeo III and successors up to Thomas II and Peter II, to reconstitute the Cisalpine dominions, raising now the imperial flag, sometimes the papal flag, playing with diplomacy and strength, focusing first on northern Piedmont, then on southern Piedmont. Here are the major municipalities of the region: maximum, that of Asti, which prevails over the ancient cities, Alba, Turin, Chieri, and above the new ones, Alessandria, Cuneo, Fossano, Dronero, Cherasco, Mondovì, and which holds its own against the Savoy, lest they cut off its roads to France, where its main businesses are. Savoyard branch and Piedmontese branch of the family proceed together, while sharing the task and subordinating one to the other. As the former acquires land in Piedmont, he gives them as a fief to the other. In 1244, Pinerolo, slowly circuit following the Savoy purchases, fell by itself: and it was the outlet of Val Chiusone in the plain, on the flanks of Asti.
At the other end of the Po Valley, the Este family, who even more intertwine their events with city events. They have good roots in Ferrara, which already at the beginning of the 13th century obeyed them as gentlemen; by Innocenzo III they are invested, in the person of Ildebrandino, of the Ancona brand. With the help of Venice, they succeeded (1240) in overthrowing the lordship of Salinguerra, which, relying on the merchant and artisan classes, had contended for their primacy; and from Ferrara they begin to widen around. Also exponent of middle classes, indeed of craftsmanship and of the Credenza di S. Ambrogio, from which the first impulse to the institutional change that will be the lordship moves, is in Milan Pagano della Torre, who, elected head in 1240 after having led a victory the Milanese people against Pavia, helps the fight against captains and valvassori.