Not all people are given thick and strong hair and a healthy scalp. Unsightly impairments of the scalp and coat of hair, which include the annoying and recurring dandruff (dandruff), make some people almost despair.


What is dandruff?

Dandruff is a visible imperfection of the scalp. These phenomena show up in individually deviating forms and are not always visually the same.

As part of dandruff, which can also affect other parts of the body, dandruff is limited to the hairy head. In dermatology, dandruff, like other types of dandruff that can affect human skin, are phenomena that definitely require treatment. See bestitude for Meanings of Collagenosis.

Dandruff or dandruff occurs with specific side effects and is characterized as dead skin cells. There is dry and greasy dandruff.


Like all body cells, the skin cells of the head also die off regularly and detach from the scalp in the form of dandruff. The causes for dandruff, either permanent and to a large extent or only occasionally recurring, are very different causes.

One of the most common triggers for the increased formation of dandruff is a fungus known as the skin fungus Pityrosporum ovale. This fungus occurs primarily on oily scalps due to overproduction of the sebaceous glands and leads to dandruff.

In addition, dandruff can also be triggered by various other skin diseases, such as neurodermatitis, psoriasis or so-called contact allergies.

The skin fungus Pityosporum ovale is considered to be the cause of the small fungus lichen, which shows up as dandruff. This type of fungus is a yeast fungus and finds optimal living and propagation conditions, especially on oily scalps.

Symptoms, Ailments & Signs

Dandruff becomes noticeable when you touch your hair or scalp with your hands. The small white flakes of skin that detach from the scalp are also noticeable when combing or brushing. Dandruff is dead skin cells. It is usually a cosmetic problem that can be solved with appropriate care products.

However, dandruff can also indicate diseases. A distinction is made between dry and greasy scales. If the scalp is too dry due to dry heating air or incorrect care, small white skin flakes will come off. Dry dandruff can also be an indication of psoriasis. If too much sebum is produced, greasy scales develop.

These skin flakes are larger, yellowish, and sticky. Itching usually occurs before dandruff actually forms. If the scalp is inflamed due to frequent scratching, dandruff formation is also promoted. If the scalp is dry and reddened, there is a feeling of tension.

Untreated dandruff causes severe redness and swelling of the scalp. Scabs and crusts may form. The crusted areas burn and weep. Hair loss can also be a result of dandruff. Dandruff can appear not only on the scalp, but also on the eyebrows. The symptoms are similar.

Diagnosis & History

The fungus is always found on the normal scalp. There is only an overproduction of dandruff when the sebaceous glands secrete more fat. The fungus absorbs these fats and metabolizes them. Substances are created that present themselves as an unpleasant itching and burning sensation on the scalp in the case of dandruff.

Scratching can inflame the scalp and cause infections. This in turn causes inflamed scalp cells to reproduce again, which leads to an increased occurrence of dandruff. In some cases, special hair care products can be considered as causal factors in classic dandruff.


Complications are not to be expected with ordinary dandruff on the head. The dermatologist or beautician should only determine whether the scalp is too dry or the result of inappropriate hair care measures. Dandruff is usually more of a cosmetic than a medical problem.

However, dandruff can also occur with neurodermatitis and psoriasis or as a result of mercury poisoning from dental materials. As an expected complication of psoriasis or contact dermatitis, dandruff belongs in the hands of a dermatologist. He can determine the cause of the worsening symptoms and then initiate targeted treatment. Any consequential damage caused by amalgam must be treated by environmental medicine specialists with detoxification measures.

Dandruff can also indicate seborrheic dermatitis that needs treatment . Self-treatment with conventional anti-dandruff shampoos can lead to complications such as inflammation of the scalp. The aggressive anti-dandruff shampoos can dry out the irritated scalp even more. This can lead to inflammatory processes and bacterial skin irritation. In the case of seborrheic eczema, special antifungal and anti-inflammatory hair care products are useful.

A pronounced tendency to dandruff can also lead to subsequent psychological problems. Those affected develop an inferiority complex. You become depressed if you don’t get better. Affected people feel uncomfortable in the company of others because their condition is so obvious and unappetizing to other people.

When should you go to the doctor?

Beat conventional means such. If you don’t wear an anti-dandruff shampoo, for example, it’s worth going to the doctor. Because behind a few dandruffs there can also be something serious. Hair may begin to fall out and there may be more scarring. On the other hand, if nothing is done for a long time, the hair will stay away permanently. Increased itching, weeping spots or pustules on the scalp are clear warning signs that should see a doctor.

In the doctor’s office it can be clarified what the cause of the dandruff infestation is. Whether an allergic reaction or z. B. a fungal infection behind it, the doctor examines using a tissue sample.

Trying a variety of products to get rid of dandruff often doesn’t help. For example, if greasy hair is the cause and a moisturizing product is used to counteract it, this could only aggravate the symptoms. Therefore, a doctor’s visit would be quite appropriate. Only the doctor can prescribe appropriate medication.

At the beginning or for the normal clarification of the symptoms, a visit to the family doctor is sufficient ; if necessary, however, a dermatologist is also necessary, who can treat the dandruff in a more targeted manner.

Treatment & Therapy

To reduce dandruff on the head, there are many different treatment options. In particular, as part of self-therapy, the affected women or men can use effective drugs from the pharmacy, which curb the development of dandruff. These drugs are known as antifungal or antifungal agents and act primarily against a skin fungus that causes dandruff to form.

These active substances are used in the form of medicinal shampoos and are used when washing the hair. Products containing salicylic acid, selenium disulphide and substances containing tar are also suitable against dandruff.

After the antifungal active ingredients from the antifungal agent have penetrated the scalp, it can be rinsed well. The result is a significant reduction in fungal growth on the scalp, which leads to a reduction in dandruff. This treatment is usually carried out for four weeks and can be replaced by conventional shampoos until dandruff returns.

If dandruff is caused by other causes, then a different treatment is carried out. In addition to the use of cortisone, the omission of allergy-causing hair care products as allergenic substances and the therapy of other causal skin diseases are possible.


In principle, it is possible to prevent dandruff from developing. This can already begin with gentle and gentle hair care. Substances that permanently irritate the scalp, such as hair dyes and perms, should also be stopped from time to time to prevent dandruff from forming.

In addition, as part of the preventive measures against dandruff, it makes sense to use pH-neutral shampoo and to rinse out residues well after washing.

Hair care products with a high alcohol content stimulate the sebaceous glands to secrete more oil. These should therefore be avoided if you have dandruff. After washing your hair, it is advisable not to blow dry it too hot and not to use excessively degreasing detergents.


Dandruff is usually not a serious condition that requires a doctor’s visit. The typical symptoms can usually be easily remedied with the help of an anti-dandruff shampoo. Since there are no symptoms afterwards, no scheduled follow-up care is necessary.

In the event of a recurrence, patients can turn to a commercially available shampoo. Sufficient hair hygiene is sufficient as a preventive measure. Those affected should groom their hair once a day. Too frequent washing can trigger dandruff in a healthy person, just like too little care.

Some patients often complain of dandruff. If they have been present for months and commercially available shampoos do not work, a doctor’s visit is necessary. In this case, other diseases can cause dandruff. The doctor tries to eliminate the causes. Scheduled follow-up examinations are agreed until the symptoms have subsided.

In addition to a conversation, a blood test, an allergy test and obtaining a pathogen culture play an important role. All in all, dandruff can be prevented, especially with preventive measures. However, these are mainly the responsibility of the patient. Especially the use of commercially available shampoos leads to good results. In contrast, scheduled follow-up examinations are usually only necessary in the case of skin diseases.

You can do that yourself

Dandruff is usually harmless. Nevertheless, they are perceived as a burden by those affected. However, there are some home remedies and measures that can be used to treat the white residue without medical help.

Typical dandruff triggers should be avoided. These include strong sunlight, hot blow-drying and an unbalanced diet. If the hair is regularly dyed or straightened, this can also lead to dandruff. A yoghurt or quark pack can also be effective. Gently massaged in, the treatment helps with severe dandruff and provides the scalp with the moisture it needs. If the dandruff does not subside or even gets worse, a visit to the dermatologist is recommended. Occasionally, the complaints have serious underlying causes. The doctor can also prescribe suitable medicines and suggest other measures that can be used to reduce dandruff.

Dandruff should subside quickly with good skin care and a healthy lifestyle. In some people, however, they are genetic. If there is a genetic predisposition, sufficient care with suitable anti-dandruff products will help. The targeted use of home remedies supports the care of the hair.