Algeria North African state. Originally inhabited by Berber populations, on which the Phoenician influence was exercised, then the Roman one, the Algeria it was conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century. and included in the region called Ifriqiya, with Tunisia and part of Libya. After being dominated by the Aghlabids (9th century), the Fatimids (10th) and the Banu Hammads, the Algeria suffered in the century. 11th, like all of North Africa, the devastating invasion of the Arab nomads Banu Hilal, who pushed the Berber tribes back to less accessible areas (Kabylia, Aurès). Absorbed from the middle of the 11th century. to that of the 13th in the Almoravid and Almohad empires, the Algeria it was subjected, to the collapse of the latter, to the local dynasty of the ‘Abdalwadids. From the century 16th Algeria it became a base for pirate raids throughout the Mediterranean. Unnecessarily opposed by the navies of Spain and Portugal, the Barbarian state of Algiers, vassal of the Sublime Porte, was maintained until 1830, when France occupied Algiers and all the coastal centers. After the failed attempt by Emir ‛Abd el-Kader to establish a Muslim state in the Oran area, direct French control was extended to all of the Algeria, including the Saharan regions. Reduced to the status of a colony, the Algeria his own language and culture were denied: thus, in 1863, Algerians were offered French citizenship if they renounced their direct French control was extended to all of the Algeria, including the Saharan regions. Reduced to the status of a colony, the Algeria his own language and culture were denied: thus, in 1863, Algerians were offered French citizenship if they renounced their direct French control was extended to all of the Algeria, including the Saharan regions. Reduced to the status of a colony, the Algeria his own language and culture were denied: thus, in 1863, Algerians were offered French citizenship if they renounced their shari‛a for the French civil code. On these themes he developed at the beginning of the 20th century. a lively nationalist movement, on a range from collaboration with the French government to rejection of all that was Western and non-Muslim. During the Second World War the Algeria, aligned with the Vichy government, was occupied without resistance by the Anglo-Americans in Nov. 1942. The defeat of the collaborationist regime and the participation of the Algerians in the French National Liberation Committee strengthened the independence movement, although the new government of Paris also insisted on the policy of assimilation, following, in 1947, some administrative concessions to be annexed of the. to the French metropolitan area. On 1st nov. 1954 a series of attacks in urban centers and in the countryside opened the Algerian Liberation War, fought by volunteers and coordinated by the Front de libération nationale (FLN). The French repression was conducted on a police and military level, refusing any negotiations with the rebels even in international forums such as the UN, where the Arab League tried in vain to bring the Algerian question. When, after almost four years of guerrilla warfare, the French government agreed to deal with the insurgents, the reaction of the settlers was unleashed. The revolt of the extremists (where the Arab League tried in vain to bring the Algerian question. When, after almost four years of guerrilla warfare, the French government agreed to deal with the insurgents, the reaction of the settlers was unleashed. The revolt of the extremists (where the Arab League tried in vain to bring the Algerian question. When, after almost four years of guerrilla warfare, the French government agreed to deal with the insurgents, the reaction of the settlers was unleashed. The revolt of the extremists (ultras) of Algiers, which broke out on May 13, 1958 with the support of the military, overwhelmed the Fourth Republic with the threat of a march on Paris. General De Gaulle, considered to be the guarantor of the Algeria French., was recalled to the government, but was soon convinced of the inevitability of a policy of concessions to Algerian nationalists, to the point of admitting full independence and detachment from France. While military operations continued, the Évian agreements (March 18, 1962) demanded the future structure of the Algeria to a popular referendum. In front of what appeared to the military and ultras like the betrayal of De Gaulle, the revolt of the French of Algeria resumed. The failure of two new coup attempts in Algiers, with the collusion of military and civilian elements, unleashed the anti-Arab terrorism of the settlers, organized in the OAS (Organization de l’armée secrète), which bloodied the Algeria and France itself with massacres and devastation. Nonetheless, the referendum vote, held on 1 July 1962, sanctioned independence, which was proclaimed on 3 July. For Algeria 2012, please check oxfordastronomy.com.
From independence to today. On 15 Sept. 1963 the Democratic and People’s Republic of d’A. Was born, with a Constitution that established a presidential and one-party regime, headed by Algeria Ben Bella. While the first congress of the FLN sanctioned (1964) the deployment of the Algeria with the so-called countries non-aligned and laid the foundations of national socialism, a military coup (1965) forced H. Boumédienne to power. In the seventies the Algeria, engaged in important structural and modernizing reforms, remained close to the pro-Soviet bloc: the 1976 Constitution officially declared it a socialist country, sanctioning the supremacy of the FLN. S. Benjiadid, elected president of the Republic in 1979, strengthened the figure of the prime minister, at the time ῾Abd al-Ghani, and promoted the complete Arabization of the country. Re-elected in 1984 and 1988, he made some constitutional amendments that attenuated the socialist approach and introduced, with the new 1989 Constitution, political pluralism, strengthening Parliament and loosening the military grip on the opposition. The economic crisis of the 1980s gave strength to the Islamic fundamentalist movement, which, like Front islamique du salut (FIS), won the administrative elections in 1990. On Jan. 1992 a military coup interrupted the political elections, already won in the first round by the Islamic party. Benjiadid’s resignation was followed by the installation of a military junta led by M. Budyaf, one of the founders of the FLN, who, recalled from exile, formed a provisional government, while the FIS was dissolved and the state of siege proclaimed for one year. On the other hand, the AIS (Armée islamique du salut), armed arm of the FIS, and the GIA (Groupe islamique armé), the most extremist faction of Algerian fundamentalism, launched a violent terrorist campaign against the regime. The crisis precipitated with the assassination of Bodyaf (1992), committed to fighting terrorism and political-financial corruption. In 1994 General L. Zeroual was appointed head of state (later confirmed in the 1995 presidential elections), a retired defense minister, whose regime, influenced by the military leaders, first sought a dialogue with the Islamists, but later became responsible of numerous violations of human rights. In a situation marked by continuous massacres to the detriment of the population (the terrible toll reached about 100,000 dead), but also from the favorable economic situation (rise in the price of oil and redefinition of the payment times of the foreign debt), the legislative elections of 1997 took place, which recorded the victory of the president’s party, the Rassemblement national démocratique and the affirmation of the Mouvement de la société pour la paix, an Islamist party founded in 1990. The sudden resignation of Zeroual (1998) led to new presidential elections (1999) won by Algeria Bouteflika, also one of the founders of the FLN, who launched a peace plan (law on civil harmony) and reached an agreement with the AIS, but excluding the FIS from the negotiations. A new escalation terrorism sanctioned the failure of Bouteflika’s attempt at reconciliation, which in 2001 also had to face a strong wave of protests for the lack of socio-economic reforms and the mobilizations of the population of Kabylia, which denounced the repression and lack of recognition of the Berber language and culture. However, this recognition was confirmed, along with other concessions, by President Bouteflika in 2002. In the same year the FLN won the general elections, characterized by low turnout and troubled by new violence and the boycott of a series of parties, two of the which the Berbers represented. In 2004, Bouteflika obtained his second presidential term with a landslide victory.