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Mexico

Mexico: Various travel information

Mexico: Various travel information

How do you get to Mexico?

The vast majority of visitors to Mexico who come from Europe certainly travel to the country by plane. But some also use a visit to the USA to make a detour to Mexico, which can be done by rental car, bus or even by plane. And some ports are also called by cruise ships

Mexico City is used by all major European airlines - such as For example from Frankfurt with Lufthansa, via Amsterdam with KLM, via Paris with Air France or via London with British Airways.

The airport is located in the city and has a metro connection and also a bus connection to some nearby cities in the country such as Cuernavaca. There is no bus connection to the center, only a taxi service. It takes about 30 minutes to get to the center.

Cancún, the airport of Cancún, is 15 km outside the city and is served by the German charter airlines (Britannia, Condor and LTU). There is a bus that goes to the center and the hotel zone. There is also an hourly bus service to Playa del Carmen.

Acapulcos, the airport is east of the city, there is a shuttle transport into the city. Acapulco is served by the charter companies.

Puerto Vallarta, the airport is 7 km outside the city and is served by the charter companies mentioned above.

Transport to the city is provided by a colectivo at fixed prices.

Travel in the country

Flight connections

There are flight connections to every major city, which regional airlines fly to several times a day.

Mexicana de Aviación

www.mexicana.com

Aeromexico

www.aeromexico.com

Aerocaribe

www.aerocaribe.com

Rail

Mexico has a poor rail network, it has a passenger service that is less than half the price of bus tickets, but it is always several hours Expect delays. Traveling by train can only partially be recommended for the north of Mexico.

bus

The bus system in Mexico is very well developed, every city is served by at least one bus company. There are different classes, the servicio ejecutivo luxury version with hostess), the 1st class and the 2nd class. The 1st class and servicio ejecutivo have the comfort of a coach and go directly to the destination, while the 2nd class buses are less convenient and are sometimes even discarded school buses. These buses also stop at every village. Every city has one or more bus stations where you can see the departure times, which are usually adhered to on time.

You can inquire about the timetable via the toll-free number 01-800-702-8000 (Spanish). Due to the great distances in Mexico, travel times of 8-12 hours are not uncommon.

city traffic

Mexico City, Guadelajara, and Monterrey have metro and city buses; every other city has buses that rarely run on a schedule. In some cities there are colectivos, minibuses or large cars that travel a certain route and passengers can get on or off at any desired point along the way.

Roads

Mexico's highways and country roads are in very good condition and connect the whole country. Some highways require a high toll (cuota). Many places ensure traffic calming, you should take the warning signs seriously; high concrete walls (topes) ensure that the traffic restrictions to be observed are observed.

There are three types of gasoline in Mexico:

Nova,Magna sin and Plus (lead-free).

Important addresses and telephone numbers

Asociación Mexicana Automovilista (AMA): Ave. Chapultepec 276

06 700 México DF

Tel. 528 58 11, 519 34 36

Police: (Policía Judicial): 08

Accident rescue (Cruz Verde): 06

Emergency number: Red Cross (Cruz Roja): 557 57 57-60

Emergency numbers of the ADAC: International Emergency Call Center in Munich, Tel. (98 49) 89/22 22 22

The 'Infotur Help-Line' of the tourism authority offers help in emergencies around the clock; in Mexico City Tel. 250 01 23, from outside 915/250 01 23; Free call from all over the country: Tel. 918 00/903 92.

Taxis

They are very inexpensive, the fare according to the taximeter or negotiate beforehand.

Rental cars

A large number of the popular rental car companies can be found in all tourist centers and major cities, but they are not a cheap alternative to public transport. Minimum age to book in Mexico is 25 years.

Ferry

connections Ferry connections exist between the Baja California peninsula and ports on the Mexican west coast: from La Paz to Topolobampo (Los Mochis) and Mazatlán, from Cabo San Lucas to Puerto Vallarta and from Santa Rosalía to Guaymas. On the Caribbean coast, ferries run from Punta Sam, Puerto Juárez and Cancún to Isla Mujeres and from Puerto Morelos and Playa del Carmen to Cozumel Island.

Traffic rules

Right-hand traffic prevails in Mexico.

In order to avoid trouble with the police or even the courts, one should strictly adhere to the traffic regulations in force in the country. The maximum speeds shown can of course be reduced or increased by traffic signs. Regardless of the information provided here, it is advisable to obtain detailed information from the ADAC, the AvD or the traffic clubs in the country concerned.

Maximum speeds

In addition to the general speed limits shown, the speed limits indicated by signs must be strictly observed.

  • Urban: in built-up areas there is a speed limit of 40 km/h.
  • Country roads: on country roads there is a speed limit of 70-90 km/h.
  • Motorways: there is a speed limit of 100-110 km/h on motorways.

The roundabout always has the right of way.

Blood

alcohol limit In Mexico there is a blood alcohol limit of 0.4 parts per thousand for drivers of motor vehicles.

International license plate

According to Abbreviationfinder, the international license plate of Mexico is:

MX

Tourist office

Mexican Tourist Office in Germany

Klingelhöferstrasse 3

10785 Berlin

Tel.: 0049 - (0) 30 - 263 97 94 0

www.visitmexico.com/de/

E-Mail: [email protected]

The aztecs

Myth of origin

The Aztecs lived in Central America in what is now Mexico between the 14th and 16th centuries. According to legend, they came to Lake Texcoco in Mexico around 1325 from a place called Aztlán. Their leader was their god Huitzilopochtli.

Where this place Aztlán is supposed to have been is hotly debated among scientists. Some even consider it a mythical place that never existed in reality.

When they arrived at Lake Texcoco, an eagle - standing on a cactus - appeared to them with a snake in its beak to eat. According to a prophecy, this was a sign to settle here. Around the year 1370 they founded the city of Tenochtitlán, their future capital. Nowadays the capital of the country "Mexico City" is located here on the remains of the old city. The eagle on the cactus with the snake is depicted on the Mexican flag. The end of the Aztec Empire came with the Spaniards and the conquest of their capital Tenochtitlán and the captive name of Montezuma II (1465-1520).

It was tragic for the existence of the Aztecs that they initially regarded the relatively few Spaniards under their leader Hernán Cortés (1485-1547) as gods and welcomed them. King Moctezuma II (1465-1520), who came to power in 1502, played an important role in this and accepted the fact that the Spanish settled in Moctezuma II in 1519 and made him a puppet. But as a result a rebellion broke out in the city, in the course of which Moctezuma was killed and the Spaniards were driven out of the city with great losses. His successor was King Cuitláuac (d. 1520), who died of smallpox. His successor was King Cuauhtémoc (1495-1525).

But not least because of the gold and other riches of the city, they came back a few months later - with reinforcements from Spain. With the help of the neighboring Indian tribes, who were hostile to the Aztecs, they were able to conquer the city on August 13, 1521 and capture the last Aztec king Cuauhtémoc.

The previous siege of the city lasted several months. The Indians were particularly troubled by the smallpox introduced, against which they had absolutely no immune defense. In addition, the war technique of the Spaniards was far superior to them.

Not long after the city was conquered, the former city, which once had around 100,000 residents, was reduced to rubble and ashes. Cuauhtémoc, the last Aztec ruler, was executed in 1525

After that, the Spaniards set about rebuilding the city and allowing the previous residents to return to the city. From the ruins of the palace of Moctezuma, the palace of the Spanish viceroys emerged and the cathedral was built on the site in front of the "Templo Mayor".

In 1535 the new "Viceroyalty of New Spain" came into being - with the former city of Tenochtitlan, renamed "Ciudad de México" (Mexico City), as the capital. That was the final end of the Aztec Empire.

The Mayans

History of the Mayans

Early pre-classical period

The beginnings of the Maya date back to 3000 BC. BC, with the time from 3000 to 900 BC. BC as early pre-classical Mayan culture. During this time, they established the first settlements in the Belize region. From here they emigrated towards the Gulf of Mexico, where they established more settlements.

Middle and Late Preclassic

Between 900 BC Until 400 BC In the middle pre-classical period, southern and northeastern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Belize were settled across the board. A brisk trade between the settlement areas begins.

The period from AD 400. up to 250 BC is called the late pre-classical period. During this period there was a strong population growth with the result that there were metropolitan areas with urban character. - In addition, a ruling elite developed. The population grew, so that large centers and a ruling elite formed.

Early Classical

The period of the early classical period lies between 250 and 600 AD. The decisive factor for this period is the large and costly conflict between the cities of Calakmul and Tikal.

Late Classic

In the late Classic period between AD 600 and AD 900, important city-states were formed, each with its own ruler. This period was a heyday in the fields of handicrafts, construction, trade, hunting and art and culture. Their cities contained more than 10,000 residents in some cases, including Tikal, Bonampak, Calakmul, Yaxchilán, Piedras Negras and Naranjo. Another achievement of the Mayan culture was the highly developed written language, which consisted of more than 800 characters. I

post-classic

The post-classical period spans around AD 900. until about the time of the Spaniards. After that there was practically no Mayan empire. Nevertheless, 6 million members of this people still live in the "Maya area" today.

Many conurbations, for example in the central lowlands, that emerged in the late Classical era either lost their importance or almost completely disappeared in the post-classical period. The reasons for these breakdowns are still not fully understood. Drought and/or natural disasters, wars or epidemics may have occurred. But in the post-classical period, new larger centers emerged with Tulum, Chichén Itzá, Cobá, Ek Balam, Uxmal and Mayapán.

Time of the Spaniards and after

After a series of unsuccessful wars, the Spaniards established three cities in the Mayan area in 1544 and began to Christianize the Mayans, sometimes with unheard of brutality. One of the consequences of this was the destruction of numerous religious and cultural symbols of the Mayans. A few decades later, the Spaniards ruled the entire Maya area. But before that, most regions had been almost depopulated by the wars and epidemics brought in by the Spaniards. It is worth noting that there was a rebellion of the descendants of the Maya around the middle of the 19th century. They fought against the oppression by the white rulers in the so-called caste war. As a result, they built the "Temple of the Oracle" in their capital, Chan Santa Cruz, around 1850.

Today there are still around 6 million people who are considered descendants of the Mayas and who in many cases still feel connected to the old traditions and are increasingly living them again.

Note

The most important places of worship of the Mayas - such as their pyramids, can be found at Goruma here >>>

Mayan religion

Religion played a major role with the Mayans, as with most people of the time. However, there was no monotheism, so there was only one god, but there were many gods who were held responsible for the weather, the harvest, diseases or even death.

As is often the case in other cultures, the gods were asked for advice with the help of priests before important decisions or events were made. As with the Greeks, for example, the gods had many human characteristics and were even given a human appearance. The worldview of the Maya religion can be compared to a tree, with the people forming the middle of the tree, the tree branches carrying the sky and the roots making their way into the realm of the dead. Over the tree trunk the souls into heaven or into the realm of the dead.

In the Maya religion, offerings and human blood played an important role, with the blood being the seat of the soul. However, people were sacrificed in the process. They were ritually killed by drowning, hanging, stoning, poisoning or mutilation. There is also evidence that the victims' chests were opened and then their hearts ripped out.

Mayan script

In the meantime, around 800 characters of the Maya script are known, the decoding of which took many decades and was not successful until the second half of the 20th century.

Unfortunately, after the conquest of America by the Spanish conquistadors in the 16th century, numerous Mayan writings were destroyed by the Spanish. For example, in 1562 the Spanish bishop Diego de Landa had many cultural assets of the earlier high culture destroyed in his conversion frenzy, including monuments, images and scrolls. Fortunately, four Mayan manuscripts, the so-called Codices, survived the orgies of destruction.

The Codices

These manuscripts (codices) are named after the cities in which they are kept today. However, only the Codex Dresden is accessible to the public:

  • Codex Dresden

    It comprises 39 pages written on both sides and is like a kind of fold-out album, which nowadays can be viewed as two strips, each about 1.80 m long. The manuscript was created between 1200 and 1250 and is in the "Book Museum of the Saxon State and University Library" in Dresden,

  • Codex Grolier (in Mexico)

    It comprises 11 pages depicting the course of Venus. However, its authenticity is highly controversial. Many scientists consider the handwriting to be a forgery. This manuscript was discovered in 1970 and is in the "National Museum of Anthropology" in Mexico City

  • Codex Madrid

    This codex is a folding book with 112 pages, which when opened is around 6.82 m long. The repository is the "Museo del Americas" in Madrid.

  • Codex Paris (Codex Peresianus)

    With a length of around 1.45 m - with 22 pages - this Codex is the shortest of the surviving Maya manuscripts. Its origin is estimated to have been between 1300 and 1500 AD. dated. It is kept in the "Bibliotèque nationale" in Paris.

Mayan Calendar

Preliminary remark

For many years, many people have been looking forward to December 21, 2012, as the Mayan calendar ends on this day. Some believed that on that day the world would end. Some hoped to be rescued by aliens by means of spaceships and people gathered in some places to celebrate this day, for example in the French town of Bugarach near the mythical mountain Pic de Bugarach or on the Yacatan peninsula in front of de Kukultán- Step pyramid.

The calendar system

The Mayans used three interconnected systems to calculate time, which count and add up the days. This is done with the help of the Tzolkin calendar, the civil Haab calendar and the so-called long count. Ultimately, the calendar system was a counter consisting of three cogs. The beginning of the census began - according to our calendar - on August 13th, 3,114 BC.

Haab calendar

The Haab calendar - also known as the solar calendar - comprised 365 days and is surprisingly close to today's annual calendar. It was realized by means of a toothed ring that had a total of 365 teeth.

Tzolkin Calendar

This calendar comprised 260 days and was used to determine religious ceremonies, celebrations and fortune telling. It was realized by means of a second smaller gear rim, which had a total of 20 teeth and was rotated by the teeth of the large gear rim. If the large sprocket has rotated once, the smaller one has rotated around 18.25 times.

Calendar

round Mathematically, the cycle of both calendars, i.e. the time after the same state is reached again, can be calculated from the smallest common multiple of 365 and 260. The result is the number of 18,980 days = 52 solar years. In order to know a specific date exactly, the Mayans mostly used the information from both calendars. From the combination of both calendars, however, only periods of 52 years can be determined.

Long counting

With the help of the Haab and Tzolkin calendars, days can only be determined exactly over a period of 52 years. A third counting system was introduced in order to be able to determine days exactly over much longer periods of time. the so-called long count. Here, too, it was a matter of counting days. This extended counting method made it possible to clearly define and determine every day within 1,872,000 days - around 5,125 years. This made it possible to precisely determine the time of longer historical periods and, above all, astronomical observations.

Mexico: entry and exit requirements

Formalities and visas

Citizens from Germany, Austria and Switzerland need a passport with a validity of at least six months. The visa in the form of a tourist card is issued for up to 90 days. The tourist card is available free of charge from airlines and Mexican consulates. This card must be presented again when leaving the country.

Importing and exporting foreign currency

There are no special regulations for importing foreign currency.

Import and export of goods

duty-free upon entry

20 packets of cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 g tobacco

3 liters of wine or other spirits

The import of fruits and plants is prohibited.

Export

The export of gold (except gold jewelry), antiques, archaeological finds and cacti is prohibited.

Mexico: Travel Medicine, Vaccinations, and Warnings

Infectious diseases

In Mexico, the following infectious diseases, which are not or less common in Germany or Central and Northern Europe, are to be expected:

  • Malaria: There is a risk of malaria infection in the country all year round, with the exception of large cities and seaside tourist resorts. Even at altitudes above approx. 1,500 m the risk is very low. Less than 1% of the infections occur with the very dangerous malaria tropica, the rest with malaria tertiana.
  • Amoebic dysentery
  • Bacterial agitation
  • Chagas disease
  • Cholera - but there is only a risk of infection for travelers who come into contact with polluted water or contaminated food.
  • Dengue fever disease
  • Intestinal infections from contaminated food or water, including amoeba, lamblia, salmonella, shigella and worm infestation, as well as all kinds of viruses and bacteria
  • Filariasis
  • Hepatitis A and B
  • Kala Azar disease
  • Leishmaniasis Disease
  • Polio, polio
  • Swine flu (there were numerous infections in April 2009)
  • rabies
  • Typhoid - however, there is only a risk of infection for travelers who come into contact with polluted water or contaminated food.
  • West Nile Fever

Recommended vaccinations

when traveling to Mexico, the following vaccinations recommended:

  • Cholera - but only among travelers who can come into contact with polluted water or contaminated food.
  • Diphtheria - a vaccination against diphtheria should always exist, also in the home country.
  • Hepatitis A and B
  • Polio, polio - vaccination against polio should always exist, also in the home country.
  • Tetanus - a vaccination against tetanus should always exist, also in the home country.
  • Rabies - but only for high-risk travelers who can come into contact with the vector animals.
  • Typhoid - but only for travelers who can come into contact with polluted water or contaminated food.

Vaccination requirements There are no vaccination regulations when entering or staying in the country.

Malaria prophylaxis

When traveling to the country, especially when traveling outside of the areas mentioned above, it is strongly advised to undergo malaria prophylaxis. However, if the side effects seem questionable to you, you should at least have a "stand-by preparation" with you.

Current warnings

Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany

Citizens' Service

Tel.:0049 - (0) 30 - 5000 - 2000

www.auswaertiges-amt.de/de

Currency, shopping

Local currency

The national currency of Mexico is the

Mexican Peso = 100 Centavos.

Country-specific goods, souvenirs

Mexico has a diverse range of offers. The best known is probably the tequila (an agave brandy), which comes from the north. Tequila is available in many designs and in all price ranges. An agave brandy, the Mexcal with the famous worm in the bottle, also comes from the state of Oaxaca. We recommend the silver work from Taxco, which is available throughout the country. In the south of the country there are many colorful indigenous markets that offer beautiful woven, leather and ceramic work. The best place to buy beautiful hammocks is in Mérida. The famous Panama hats are also made there.

Mexico: Diplomatic missions, tourist office

Visit Countryaah for a full list of Mexico embassies and consulates in each country around the world.

Mexico embassies and consulates

Representations of Mexico in Germany

The Mexican embassy is only a few meters away from the German headquarters of the CDU on one side and the Nordic embassies on the other. The embassies of Bahrain, Luxembourg, Malta and Monaco are located in a building right next to the CDU building - and thus close to the Mexican embassy. The Malaysian embassy is also in the immediate vicinity.

Embassy of the United Mexican States in Berlin

Klingelhöferstrasse 3

10785 Berlin

Tel: 0049 - (0) 30 - 269 32 30

Email: [email protected]

Web: http://portal.sre.gob.mx/alemania/

Consulate General of the United Mexican States in Frankfurt

Taunusanlage 21

60325 Frankfurt am Main

Tel: 0049 - (0) 69 - 29 98 750

Email: [email protected]

Honorary Consul in Bremen

Kap-Horn-Str. 18

28237 Bremen

Tel: 0049 - (0) 421 - 6101-212

Email: [email protected]

Honorary Consul in Hamburg

Kleine Reichenstrasse 1

20457 Hamburg

Tel: 0049 - (0) 40 - 3250-8867

Email: [email protected]

Honorary Consul in Hanover

Landschaftstrasse 6

30159 Hanover

Tel: 0049 - (0) 511- 328188

Email: info @ consulmex- haj.de

You can find further honorary consulates in: Düsseldorf and Munich.

German representations in Mexico

Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany in Mexico City

Horacio No. 1506, Col. Los Morales Sección Alameda, Deleg. Miguel Hidalgo

11530 México DF

Tel: 0052 - 55 - 283 22 00

Fax: 0052 - 55 - 281 25 88

Email: [email protected]

Web: www.mexiko.diplo.de

Honorary Consulate of the Federal Republic of Germany in Acapulco

Antón de Alaminos No. 26, Casa Tres Fuentes, Col. Costa Azul

39850 Acapulco/Gro.

Tel: 0052 - 744 - 484 18 60

0052 - 744 - 484 96 80

Email: [email protected]

Honorary Consulate of the Federal Republic of Germany in Cancun

Punta Conoco No. 36, SM 24

77509 Cancun, Quintana Roo.

Tel: 0052 - 998 - 884 53 33/15 98/18 98

Email: [email protected]

Honorary Consulate of the Federal Republic of Germany in Chihuahua

Ave. del Campestre No. 175, Club Campestre

31238 Chihuahua/Chih.

Tel: 0052 - 614 - 411 27 62

Email: [email protected]

You can find other honorary consulates in: Guadalajara, Monterrey, Mérida, Puebla, Querétaro, Tampico, Tijuana and Veracruz.

Austrian representations in Mexico

Austrian Embassy in Mexico

Sierra Tarahumara 420

Colonia Lomas de Chapultepec

11000 Mexico, DF

Tel: 0052 - (0) 55 - 52 51 16 06

Email: [email protected]

www.aussenministerium.at/mexiko

www.embajadadeaustria. com.mx

The Austrian embassy in Mexico is still responsible for:

  • Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua

Honorary Consulate in Cancun

Calle Punta Conoco No. 36 SM 24

77500 Cancun

Tel: 0052 - 998 - 884 1598

Email: [email protected]

Honorary Consulate in Guadalajara

Montevideo 2695, Col. Providencia

CP 44630 Guadalajara, Jalisco

Tel: 0052 - 33 - 36 42 83 40

E-Mail: [email protected]

Honorary Consulate in Monterrey

Ave. Ricardo Margaín No. 260, Colonia Valle del Campestre

Garza García, Nuevo León

CP 66265, Torre Villacero, Segundo Piso

Tel: 0052 - 81 - 81 52 50 68

Email: [email protected]

Honorary Consulate in Merida

Av. Colon No. 501-C, Desp. A-309/310

97000 Mérida, Yucatan

Tel: 0052 - 999 - 925 63 86

Email: [email protected]

Honorary Consulate in Tijuana

Ave. Revolución 1641, Zona Centro CP

22000 Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

Tel: 0052 - 664 - 638 66 16

Email: [email protected]

Representations of Mexico in Austria

Embassy of the United Mexican States in Vienna

Operngasse 21

1040 Vienna

Tel: 0043 - (0) 1- 310 73 83/-86

Email: [email protected]

Honorary Consulate in Wattens

Blattenwaldweg 8

6112 Wattens

Tel: 0043 - (0) 5224 - 58 77 12

Swiss representations in Mexico

Embassy of Switzerland in Mexico City

Torre Optima (piso 11), Paseo de las Palmas 405,

Col. Lomas de Chapultepec

11000 México DF

Tel: 0052 - 55- 91 78 43 70

E-Mail: [email protected] ch

Web: www.eda.admin.ch/mexico

The Swiss embassy in Mexico is still responsible for Belize

Consulate of Switzerland in Cancun

Av. Coba No. 12, local 214

Edif. Vénus, SM5, MZ1

77500 Cancún, Q.Roo

Tel: 0052 - 99 - 88 84 84 46

Email: [email protected]

Swiss Consulate in Guadalajara

Calle # 5 s/n (al lado del # 131)

Col. Seattle

45150 Zapopan CP, Jal.

Tel: 0052 - 33 - 38 33 41 22

E-Mail: [email protected]

Consulate of Switzerland in Monterrey

Blv. Diaz Ordaz 250 Ote.

Col. Santa Maria

64650 Monterrey, NL

Tel: 0052 - 81 - 83 35 38 90

0052 - 81 - 82 18 33 60

E-Mail: [email protected]

Representations of Mexico in Switzerland

Embassy of the United Mexican States in Bern

Weltpoststrasse 20

3015 Bern

Tel: 0041 - (0) 31 - 357 47 47

Fax: 0041 - (0) 31 - 357 47 49-

Email: [email protected]

Web: www.sre.gob.mx/suiza /

Mexican Consulate

Aeschenvorstadt 21

4051 Bâle

Tel: 0041 - (0) 61 - 283 06 30

Email: [email protected]

Mexican Consulate

Rue de Candolle 16

1205 Geneva

Tel: 0041 - (0) 22 - 328 39 20

Email: consulatdegenè[email protected]

Mexican Consulate

Höschgasse 28

8008 Zurich

Tel: 0041 - (0) 44 - 253 64 02

Web: aprahnakora.ch

 

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